From: Concurrent Substance Use and Mental Health Problems in Youth: Screening for Concurrent Substance Use and Mental Health Problems in Youth (© 2009, CAMH)
These three scales are part of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A). Their development is closely related to that of the substance use scales in the adult version, the MMPI.
Three substance use scales were developed using items from the MMPI. When the MMPI was revised, producing the MMPI-2, changes were made to the substance use scales. The revised adult scales are:
- MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale-Revised (MAC-R)
- Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS)
- Addiction Potential Scale (formerly the Alcohol/Drug Problem Proneness Scale).
All three scales use MMPI and MMPI-2 items that are substance abuse-related but, because of the way they are worded, do not appear to the client to be asking about substance use. This use of unobtrusive items was done to minimize "faking."
The adolescent version of the MMPI (the MMPI-A), has parallel substance use tools.
- MacAndrew Scale – Revised (MAC-R)
- Alcohol/Drug Acknowledgement Scale (ACK)
- Alcohol/Drug Proneness Scale (PRO).
The three measures are embedded in the MMPI-A and are derived in the compilation and scoring of this much larger battery.
Appropriate target populations
Adolescents from 14 to 18 years old.
The MAC-R, ACK and PRO are embedded in the MMPI-A and, therefore, administered as part of the MMPI battery.
_X_ self-administered (paper-and-pencil)
_X_ self-administered (computer)
Accessibility and cost
___ no charge for use
___ use requires permission of test developer
_X_ use requires special training and/or professional or academic credentials
_X_ fee for use. (Check Pearson Assessment and Information for pricing.)
Where to access
Butcher, J. N., Williams, C. L., Graham, J. R., Archer, R. P., Tellegen, A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Kaemmer, B. (1992). MMPI-A: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-A: A Manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Summary of test development data
Quality of reporting
Moderate, based on STARD rating (see Appendix, p.76).
Summary of validity and reliability data
Low, based largely on the limited number of validation studies, marginal performance in the studies identified and poor evidence of reliability.
Inside Screening for Concurrent Substance Use and Mental Health Problems in Youth:
Screening Tools: Fact Sheets
Appendix: Project Methodology